一橋大学国際交流セミナー 旅人の記憶 —— 日本とインドの近代 Brij Tankha 日 時 平成 20 年 2 月 22 日（金）午後３時３０分 ～ ５時３０分 場 所 一橋大学 佐野書院 会議室 (http://www.hit-u.ac.jp/guide/campus/campus/index.html の２３番 ) http://www.hit-u.ac.jp/guide/campus/campus/index.html 講 演 者 ブリッジ・タンカ Brij Tankha （インド・デリー大学東アジア学部教授・ 早稲田大学客員教授・日本史） 演 題 「旅人の記憶 —— 日本とインドの近代」 使用言語： 日本語で講演、質疑は英語・日本語 （著書） Buddhist Pilgrimage (June 2000) Kita Ikki And the Making of Modern Japan : A Vision of Empire (July 2006) Okakura Tenshin and Pan-asianism : Shadows of the Past (May 2008) Kenji Mizoguchi and the Art of Japanese Cinema (Aug 2008)
Objective The objective of this talk is to consider how an understanding of modernity and Asia was reflected in the way each perceived the other. While understanding did begin to increase mis-understandings were equally crucial in shaping the debates.
Travelers The period in the late 1880’s saw travel begin: Kitabatake Doryu 1883, Vivekananda in 1893, Visvesvaraya 1898, Ito Chuta, Otani Kozui, Okakura Tenshin This was the period which saw the creation of mutual images often mediated by Europe but also formed by internal compulsions and interests.
Indian Writing on Asia M.S.Visvesvaraya (1860-1962), went to Japan in March 1898 for three months travelling to Tokyo, Kyoto, and other parts, making a close study of the country 1919second trip along with Sir Vithaldas Damodar Thakersay and Mulraj Khatau, both noted industrialists.
Indian Writing on Asia Aurobindo Ghose (1872-1950), politically active (1905-12). Briefly imprisoned in the Alipore Bomb case but acquitted (1908) though still considered dangerous by the British he sought refuge in Pondicherry (1910), then a French colony where from 1914 he turned fully to a spiritual life.
Indian Writing on Asia Benoy Kumar Sarkar (1887-1949), one of the founders of modern sociology in India was a polyglot, scholar of Sanskrit and English writing on history, economics and political science.
The Greater India Society The Greater India Society Journal produced between 1917-1942 brought out by scholars in Bengal such as Suniti Kumar Chatterji, Kalidas Nag, R.C Mazumdar who looked at India’s cultural influence in Southeast Asia to argue that India was to Asia what Greece was to the West. The influence of French Oriental scholars such as Sylvain Levi helped to shape their work.
Trip to China 1899 Otani Kozui immersed himself in all manner of interests to understand the country – churches, steel plants, jails, graveyards and orphanages, which he was surprised to see run by Christian missionaries. Wrote 清国巡遊誌 published in 1900, and made member of the Royal Geographical Society of England, the first non-European member. His constant companion Uehara Yoshitaro accompanied him on this trip but his account ( 南 船北馬 )was never published.
岡倉天心 (1862-1913) 美術学者として日本の美術政策に大きな役割を 果たした。東京美術学校をと東京美術院を成立 したひとり。アジアの美術調査を仏教のうえに アジアの統一をもとめた。 英語で書かれた著作、 The Awakening of the East (written 1901 published 1940) The Ideals of the East with Special reference to the Arts of Japan(1901 published 1903), The Awakening of Japan (1905), The Book of Tea (1906) は欧米で 名がしられました。 1901 にインドを訪れた時の旅行記は：印度旅行 談,, 印度美術談, 史学会席上の印度研究談。
Okakura Tenshin (1862-1913) Okakura Tenshin’s writings are an early attempt to search for and define Japan’s past. Japan’s successful transition to modernity points the way for the liberation of Asia. Okakura`s explorations do not present a tightly articulated agenda but partake of the ambiguities and contradictions inherent in the situation. His contribution lies not just in defining the artistic heritage of Japan and linking Asia through Buddhism and art but in laying the boundaries of what it means to be Japanese.
Lessons from India Japanese Buddhism can be correctly translated as Hinduism ( 印度教 ). Well acquainted with the writing of British scholars such as Cunningham, Ferguson and Wilson sees them as dated. Indian scholars, such as Rajendra Mitra, are producing truly path breaking studies and questioning the British understanding of Indian history. These explorations provide a new way for Japanese to understand China and Asia. Okakura says that these writings have shown him that in the making of Japan, India and China are like the warp and woof of a single tapestry.
Seki Rokou’s Views of India Seki is alive to on current developments and seems far more sympathetic but like many other travelers language is a problem. His attitude to India’s colonial situation and aspirations to develop and modernize is strikingly ambiguous. Familiar with British writings on Indian history and society and so brings some of their prejudices and concerns as well as his own.
Problems of Indian Society Indians can only develop and change if they break their caste and language barriers and free themselves from the prevailing superstitions of religion. His solution is to encourage foreign travel, eating beef and mixing socially with followers of other religions, Need to stir up their society ( 波紋 ) Japanese can play a role as Indians while they disliked foreigners like the Japanese, even policemen and soldiers are friendly towards the Japanese.
Development Policies He notes that the rulers of Mysore and Baroda are working to change society and develop their region. He visits Baroda University and finds the buildings impressive but the classrooms are comparable to that of a Japanese village school. The ruler of Mysore is also, following a policy of 殖産興業, bringing in the latest machinery and specialists from Europe and Japan to train local people, improving sandalwood cultivation a major source of revenue. improving health and sanitation as epidemics and diseases kill a large number of people, most of whom are homeless and poor. Mysore is also spreading education and opening schools to nurture talent Given these policies Mysore, he feels, will certainly develop.
Conclusion Exploring India and other parts of Asia was driven by the desire to establish Japan as a modern nation equal to the America and Europe need to define the nature and characteristics of Japanese culture and history as Japan formed by influences from China and other parts of Asia,.
Conclusion Ito Chuta deployed India as a route to trace the origins of Greek influence in Japan, Otani Kozui saw it as part of building Japanese Buddhism to trace and document the early influences and transmission. Okakura, was one of the few to be involved with the social and political movement and identifies with the people and, in an unpublished work, urges his ‘Brothers and Sisters of Asia’ to take up arms against colonial exploitation.
Conclusion Visvesvaraya and Sarkar though working within the modernist paradigm both looked out of a direct rather than a European inspired agenda. V. recognized the importance of state intervention in economic development and so his interest in Meiji Japan. Sarkar by breaking Orientalist stereotypes argued for a common methodology and looking at subaltern interaction through popular religion. Importance of nation to resist colonialism as well as building wider solidarities.
One circuit Japan=Europe-within which India is observed. India becomes the site for tracing influences and reaffirming Japanese scholarship and equal to Europe but this is also based on preservation of Buddhism and culture and hence appropriate that Japanese undertake this rather than Christian West. The examples of Indian rulers eg. Ashoka and Akbar in turn influences way of looking at tenno. Strengthening of view that nation is important eg Okakura’s paean to national strength in Awakening of East
India within the anti-colonial struggle seeking to redefine its strengths looks to Japan and Asia as examples of its benign cultural influence and therefore continuing importance but it’s vision of Asia encompasses West, Central as well as Southeast and East Asia.
The need to examine these circuits to see the degree of independence from European agenda ( “new modes of consciousness”). These new imaginings are in the period around the Russo- Japanese and their relationship to Japanese colonialism also needs to be examined.